The composition of intelligent traffic technology

The composition of intelligent traffic technology The development of technology provides a more thorough understanding of intelligent transportation: sensors and on-board sensing devices in road infrastructure can monitor traffic flow and vehicle status information in real time. Monitoring data is transmitted to the management center through the ubiquitous mobile communication network; the Internet of Things technology is Intelligent Transportation provides more comprehensive interconnection: IoT technology provides more in-depth intelligence for intelligent transportation, and intelligent traffic management and scheduling mechanisms can fully utilize the efficiency of road infrastructure, maximize traffic flow and improve security. To optimize people's travel experience. The following describes the IoT technology applied to intelligent transportation. Intelligent transportation brings great convenience to city life. This paper focuses on the application and technology composition of intelligent transportation development.

Intelligent Transportation Application Analysis

As an effective technological measure to improve traffic congestion and reduce traffic congestion in recent years, traditional traffic modes have become more intelligent, safer, energy-efficient, and highly efficient. More and more attention has been paid by the urban management department. At present, intelligent transportation is mainly used in three major areas in China:

1. Informatization of highway traffic, including the construction of expressways, and the construction of provincial highways and highways

At present, the hotspot projects mainly focus on road tolls, which are mainly based on software. The highway toll project is divided into two parts, the online charging software and the toll collection system. In addition, IETC is the main way for future highway toll collection.

2. Informatization of urban road traffic management services

Compatibility and integration are the main problems in the informationization of urban road traffic management services. Therefore, a comprehensive information platform has become a hot topic in this field. In addition to the urban traffic integrated information platform, some of the more promising vertical applications include intelligent signal control systems, electronic police, and onboard navigation systems.

3, urban public transport informatization

At present, the informatization application of public transport systems in China is still relatively backward. The smart public transport dispatching system is basically in a blank stage in China, and is also an area where planners can focus on development. In terms of geographical distribution, major cities in the country, especially the southern coastal areas, attach great importance to the development of intelligent transportation.

Intelligent traffic technology composition

1, wireless communication technology
There are already a variety of wireless communication solutions that can be applied to intelligent transportation systems. Wireless modem communications in the UHF and VHF bands are widely used for short-range and long-distance communications in intelligent transportation systems.

Short-range wireless communications (less than a few hundred meters) can be implemented using the IEEE 802.11 series of protocols, of which the Intelligent Transportation Association of America and the US Department of Transportation are the main pushers of the WAVE and DSRC standards. In theory, the communication distance of these protocols can be extended using mobile Ad-hoc networks and Mesh networks. The long-range wireless communication schemes proposed at present are implemented through infrastructure networks such as WiMAx (IEEE802.16), GSM, and 3G technologies. The long-distance communication schemes using the above technologies are relatively mature at present, but compared with the short-distance communication technologies, they require large-scale infrastructure deployment and the cost is high. There is currently no agreed-upon business model to support the construction and maintenance of such infrastructure.

Currently, vehicles have been able to communicate with satellites, mobile communication devices, mobile phone networks, road infrastructure, and surrounding vehicles through various wireless communication methods, and access to the Internet using widely deployed WiFi, mobile phone networks, and the like.

2, computing technology

At present, automotive electronics account for 30% of the cost of ordinary cars and 60% of high-end cars. According to the latest developments in automotive electronics, fewer vehicles will be equipped with more powerful processors in the future. In 2000, an ordinary car had 20 to 100 networked microcontroller/programmable logic control modules using non-real-time operating systems. The current trend is to use fewer but more powerful microprocessor modules and hardware memory management and real-time operating systems. At the same time, the new embedded system platform will support more complex software applications, including model-based process control, artificial intelligence, and pervasive computing. The wide application of artificial intelligence technology is expected to bring a qualitative leap to intelligent transportation systems.

3, perception technology

The development of technologies such as telecommunications, information technology, microchips, RFID, and inexpensive smart beacon sensing, as well as its wide application in intelligent transportation systems, provide a powerful guarantee for vehicle driver safety. The sensing technology in intelligent transportation systems is a network system based on vehicles and road infrastructure. Sensors in the transport infrastructure are embedded in roads or roadside facilities (such as buildings), so they need to be deployed during the construction and maintenance phase of the road or deployed using specialized sensor planting tools. Vehicle awareness systems include the deployment of road infrastructure to vehicles and vehicle-to-road infrastructure electronic beacons for identification communications, while using closed-circuit television technology and license plate number identification technology to continuously monitor suspicious vehicles in hotspots.

4, video vehicle monitoring

The use of video camera equipment (see Figure 16.4) for traffic measurement and accident detection belongs to the category of vehicle monitoring. Video surveillance systems (such as automatic license plate number recognition) have great advantages over other sensing technologies. They do not need to deploy any equipment on the road or roadbed. Therefore, they are also called "non-implantable" traffic monitoring. When there is a vehicle passing, the video captured by the black and white or color camera will be input to the processor for analysis to find out the changes of the video image characteristics. The camera is usually fixed on a building or pillar near a driveway. Most video surveillance systems require some initial configuration to "church" the processor's current background image of the road environment. This process usually involves entering known measurement data, such as lane line spacing and camera-to-road height. According to different product models, a single video monitoring processor can simultaneously process video data from 1 to 8 cameras. The typical output of a video surveillance system is the speed of the vehicle in each lane, the number of vehicles and the occupancy of the lane. Some systems also provide some additional outputs including stopping vehicle detection, false driving vehicle alarms, and more.

5, GPS system GPS

The built-in GPS receiver in the vehicle can receive signals from multiple different satellites and calculate the current position of the vehicle. The positioning error is generally a few meters. The reception of GPS signals requires that the vehicle has a field of view of the satellite, so that the use of the technology may be limited in the central area of ​​the city due to the blockage of the building. GPS is the core technology of many in-car navigation systems. Many countries have or plan to use vehicle-mounted satellite GPS devices to record the mileage of vehicles and charge accordingly.

6. Probing vehicles and equipment

Some countries have started deploying so-called "probing vehicles", which are usually taxis or government-owned vehicles equipped with DSRC or other wireless communication technologies. These vehicles report their speed and location to the traffic operations management center. The management center integrates these data to get a wide range of traffic conditions to detect traffic jams. At the same time, a large amount of scientific research is focused on how to use the mobile phone held by the driver to obtain real-time traffic flow information. The vehicle location information of the mobile phone can be obtained in real time through the GPS system. For example, more than 10,000 taxis and commercial vehicles in Beijing have installed GPS devices and sent their driving speed information to a satellite. This information will eventually be transmitted to the Beijing Traffic Information Center, where the information is aggregated to get the average traffic speed on all roads in Beijing.

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